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Runes
Viking age long branch runes (younger futhark)


runan f
runan u
runan th
runan a (nasalt)
runan r
runan k
runan h
runan n
runan i
runan a
runan s
runan t
runan b
runan m
runan l
runan R (palatalt)
f
u
th
a
nasal
r
k
h
n
i
a
s
t
b
m
l
r
palatal


Long branch runes of the 16-character futhark used during the viking age (from the 9:th century).

The rune for nasal a later changes sound to o. The rune for palatal r is especially common
at the end of words, but later changes sound to y and the regular r rune takes over.

In addition to long branch runes also short branch (short twig) runes were used during the viking age.

Before the viking age a 24-character futhark was used (from late 2:nd / early 3:rd century).
After the viking age a medieval (from late 11:th / early 12:th century) runic alphabet with
even more runes was used. The Icelandic runes are of such medieval type.







This is an English language version of a page at faktabanken.nu. The corresponding Swedish language page is here.