Runes Viking age long branch runes (younger futhark)
Long branch runes of the 16-character futhark used during the viking age (from the 9:th century).
The rune for nasal a later changes sound to o. The rune for palatal r is especially common at the end of words, but later changes sound to y and the regular r rune takes over.
In addition to long branch runes also short branch (short twig) runes were used during the viking age.
Before the viking age a 24-character futhark was used (from late 2:nd / early 3:rd century). After the viking age a medieval (from late 11:th / early 12:th century) runic alphabet with even more runes was used. The Icelandic runes are of such medieval type.
This is an English language version of a page at faktabanken.nu. The corresponding Swedish language page is here.